Diagram, Steps To Draw The Potassium Bohr Model

Potassium is a chemical element with the atomic number 19 and the symbol K. It’s an extremely soft metal that can even be sliced with a knife into bits. It has a silvery-white look and is noted for having a strong reaction with water.

Potassium ions are recognised to serve a critical role in our bodies, including nerve transmission, and a potassium deficit can lead to irregular cardiac rhythms. It’s also employed in the commercial sector, particularly in the soap and fertiliser industries.

Friends, we will study about potassium and the Bohr model in this essay.

So, let’s get started…

Potassium Bohr Model

Atoms were once thought to be minuscule structures with a heavy core, known as the nucleus, that carried a positive charge and electrons that flew in random orbits around the nucleus.

Niel Bohr updated Ernst Rutherford’s prior model in 1915, establishing that electrons fly around the nucleus in specific circular orbits, often known as shells. Furthermore, according to Bohr, these shells have distinct energy levels.

Essentially, Rutherford focused on explaining the nucleus of the atom, while Bohr defined the electrons, their locations, and energies.

He named these shells with integers, the quantum number n, where n might be any number between 1 and 4, for example. These shells can also be designated K, L, M, N, and so on in alphabetical order.

The ability of electrons to travel from one shell to another is also highlighted in this model. When an electron loses energy, it falls into a lower-energy shell, and when it gains energy, electrons leap from lower to higher energy levels.

As a result, the following are the postulates of the Bohr-Rutherford model:

• An atom’s maximal mass is concentrated in its nucleus, which is made up of protons and neutrons and consists of protons and neutrons.

• Protons are positively charged atomic particles, whereas neutrons are neutral.

• Electrons are negatively charged particles that travel around the nucleus in fixed-energy orbits called orbital shells.

• The integer n is used to represent these orbital shells (where the value of n can be any whole number viz. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.)

• Electrons can gain energy by moving from lower to higher energy orbitals and lose energy by moving from higher to lower energy orbitals.

The valence shell is the farthest electron-carrying shell from the nucleus, and the electrons that reside there are known as valence electrons.

There are 19 protons, 20 neutrons, and 19 electrons in the potassium atom. The electrons are separated into four shells: K, L, M, and N.

Potassium AtomValue
No. of Proton19
No. of Neutron20
Number of Electron19
Number of shells4
Number of electrons in first (K) shell2
Number of electrons in second (L) shell8
Number of electrons in third (M) shell8
Number of electrons in fourth (N) shell1
Number of valence electrons1

Potassium belongs to Period 1 and Group 4 of the periodic table. It is the Periodic Table’s 19th element.

Periodic Table of Potassium

The following is the information that we may deduce from the Potassium box:

• Potassium has an atomic number of 19.

• Potassium’s electrical configuration is [Ar] 4s1.

• Potassium’s atomic symbol is K.

Potassium has an atomic mass of 39.0983.

This data is sufficient to construct the Bohr model of potassium.

We’ll start by drawing the nucleus of this atom.

To do so, we’ll need to figure out how many protons and neutrons are in this atom.

The number of protons in an atom’s nucleus is the same as its atomic number.

Potassium has an atomic number of 19 and is a chemical element.

As a result, the number of protons in a potassium atom equals its atomic number, which is 19.

We’ll now calculate the amount of neutrons in this atom.

The number of neutrons in an atom can be estimated by first rounding up the atomic mass to the nearest whole number, then subtracting the number of protons.

Number of neutrons = atomic mass rounded up to nearest whole number – number of protons

Potassium has an atomic mass of 39.0983, which we can round up to 39.

Furthermore, the number of protons in a potassium atom, as determined above, is 19.

The number of neutrons in the atom of potassium is 39 – 19 = 20.

As a result, the number of neutrons in a potassium atom is equal to 20.

Because these two atomic species exist inside the nucleus, we can now draw the nucleus of the Potassium atom using this information:

Protons are represented by the letter p+, while neutrons are represented by the letter n° in the diagram above.

Now that our atom’s nucleus is complete, we can determine the number of electrons in the potassium atom.

The number of protons and electrons in an atom is always the same.

As a result, in the case of the atom of potassium,

19 e– = number of protons = number of electrons

The sign e– is used to symbolise electrons.

After determining the amount of electrons in an atom, we must place them in their appropriate energy levels or orbital shells.

To do so, we must first comprehend the following guidelines:

• Only two electrons are always present in the first shell, the K shell.

• The formula 2n2 is used to compute the number of electrons in a shell.

• Electrons in any shell with more than four electrons are always filled in a clockwise direction in the group of four.

• In any shell, the first four electrons are arranged at a 90° angle to the descending electron.

• However, as the number of electrons grows, the angle between them continues to shrink.

We can now start populating the shells with electrons. Let’s start with the K shell.

Number of electrons in the potassium atom’s K shell = 2n2 = 2

We’ll now proceed to the L shell of the potassium atom.

First, we’ll use the formula above to get the number of electrons in the L shell.

As a result, the number of electrons in the potassium atom’s L shell = 2n2 = 2(2)2 = 8

As specified in the guidelines above, we will now fill these electrons in the group of 4 in a clockwise direction.

We may now fill the remaining four electrons in the same way that the four electrons in the L shell have been resolved. After that, the shell will look like this:

L1 Potassium Shell

The L shell of the Potassium atom is now complete. As a result, we can proceed to M shell.

The number of electrons in the potassium atom’s M shell = 2n2 = 2 (3)2 = 18

As a result, the M shell should be able to hold up to 18 electrons.

However, there is a fascinating truth to consider. The first elements in the periodic table, those with atomic numbers less than 20, can only have 8 electrons in their M shell.

Beyond atomic number 20, atoms can transport any number of electrons below 18, i.e. the maximum number of electrons that the M shell of these atoms can carry is 18.

As a result, the Potassium atom’s M shell only has 8 electrons.

Now we’ll fill these electrons in the M shell according to the preceding principles, i.e. in the group of 4 in a clockwise direction.

Following the filling of the first four electrons in the M shell of the potassium atom, the following appears:

Now that the four electrons in the M shell have been settled, we may fill the remaining four electrons in the same way. After that, the shell will look like this:

The M shell of the Potassium atom is fully complete. As a result, we can go on to the N shell.

The number of electrons in the potassium atom’s N shell is 2n2 = 2 (4)2 = 32.

As a result, an atom’s N shell can hold up to 32 electrons.

However, in the instance of the potassium atom, we have already filled the K, L, and M shells with 2 + 8 + 8, i.e. 18 electrons.

We only have one electron left because the total number of electrons in the potassium atom is 19.

We’ll put this electron in the N shell of the Potassium atom, and the final Bohr model for Potassium will look like this:

As a result, the Potassium atom’s final Bohr model has 19 protons, 20 neutrons, and 19 electrons. The electrons are divided into four shells: K, L, M, and N, which are numbered 2, 8, 8, and 1 correspondingly.

Using the Bohr Model to Deduce Lewis Structure

Both the Lewis structure and the Bohr model of an atom use visual representation to describe its structure.

Simply the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons, as well as the number of shells, are explained in the Bohr model, but the Lewis structure only shows the valence electrons and nucleus.

In addition, the Lewis structure depicts the electrons as dots, while the nucleus is represented by the element’s atomic symbol.

Potassium’s Lewis structure is as follows:

Conclusion

The Potassium atom has 19 protons, 20 neutrons, and 19 electrons in the final Bohr model.

The electrons are divided into four shells: K, L, M, and N, which are numbered 2, 8, 8, and 1 correspondingly.

Atoms with an atomic number less than 20 can only have 8 electrons in their M shell. As a result, the Potassium atom’s M shell only has 8 electrons.

Read more: Is CaCl2 an ionic or a covalent compound?

Misha Khatri
Misha Khatri is an emeritus professor in the University of Notre Dame's Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. He graduated from Northern Illinois University with a BSc in Chemistry and Mathematics and a PhD in Physical Analytical Chemistry from the University of Utah.

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