Hybridization and Lewis Structures for the BF3 Molecule

BF3 is an inorganic chemical because it does not include a carbon atom or C-H bond. Boron oxides and hydrogen fluoride are combined to produce the chemical compound BF3, which has a pungent odour and is colourless.

In distinct states of matter, the chemical behaves in a different way. Toxic while in a gaseous condition, it produces a cloud of white vapours when exposed to damp air. It is very soluble in liquid form.

Chemicals like adhesives and lubricants can be made with BF3 as a catalyst for condensation and esterification reactions.

Eyes and skin can be damaged by contact, and inhalation can cause severe poisoning. Plastic and rubber can also be damaged by it.

Lewis Structure-Related Aspects

Find out the atomic number and the electronegativity of the elements by studying the properties of the periodic table.

Count and compute the atom’s final shell’s valence electron count.

To find the total amount of valence electrons in a compound, multiply the number of valence electrons in an atom by the number of valence electrons in the molecule.

Find the number of lone pairs (unpaired electrons) and the number of electrons that form bonds (electrons that take part in the formation of a bond).

Put the least electronegative atom in the centre of the atoms you’ve identified.

Make a single bond with the centre atom at first.

Keep in mind the rule that states that each atom must have an octet of eight electrons in its final shell.

An atom’s covalent bond is formed when two or more of its electrons are shared.

Discovering BF3’s Lewis Structure

In addition to atomic number, valency, and other properties, the periodic table helps you learn about numerous elements.

You must first compute four crucial things in order to fully understand any Lewis dot structure of boron trifluoride BF3.

Electrons in the valence shells.

The number of electrons needed to form an octet.

The number of electron pairs involved in electron bonding.

Pairs of one (non-bonding pairs: when electrons do not participate in the formation of bonding between atoms)

Both fluorine (F) and boron (B) have an atomic number of 5. As a result, you may use electrical configuration to figure out how many valence electrons each atom has.

1, 2 and 3 Boron

There are 2, 7 and 7 fluorine

Born is an exception to the octet rule. The outermost shell of this atom requires six valence electrons.

One boron atom and three fluorine atoms make up the chemical. A link between two atoms requires the sharing of 24 valence electrons, according to the results of a computer simulation.

3 plus 7 plus 3 is equal to 24.

Each atom must share 8 electrons in its outermost shell, but F only needs 6 valence electrons in its final shell to determine the required number of electrons for sharing.

Thirty is the sum of six and eight.

Count the number of electrons in the Lewis dot structure that are utilised for bonding purposes.

Work out how many electrons are needed to make up the difference in valence.

In this example, 30 divided by 24 equals 6.

3 covalent bonds are established between F and B atoms if there are 6 pairs of electrons bonded together.

If you want to find out the amount of lone pairs, divide the total number of valence electrons by the number of electrons in all of the bonds.

i.e., 9 lone pairings out of a total of 24

Select the centre atom before adding electrons to complete the octets.

B is the least electronegative element in the table, whereas F is the most. Since B has six electrons, it forms three one-electron connections with atoms of F

A total of six electrons should surround each F once you’ve distributed the remaining 18 valence electrons.

As a result of the information we’ve gathered, each fluorine atom requires 8 electrons to complete its octet, while boron atoms require 6 electrons to stabilise.

Fluorine shares electrons with boron so that it can have six electrons, which is unusual. Boron’s electrons also help fluorine complete its final shell.

Hybridization in Battlefield 3 (BF3)

The BF3 molecular configuration calls for B atoms to undergo a process known as “hybridization” in which they acquire sp2 hybrid orbitals by undergoing p-orbital and s-orbital conversion.

A molecule’s form changes as a result of hybridization.

There are two atoms in 1s-orbital, two in the 2s-orbital, and one atom in p-orbital in the ground state of energy level production in B.

To create a bond with other atoms of F, it indicates that only one lone electron is accessible.

For hybridization to occur, there must be vacant orbitals, so electrons can arrange themselves in 2p-orbitals by promoting to higher energy levels.

Three single electrons are now available to form single bonds in three separate orbitals, the 2s, the 2px, and the 2py orbitals. sp2 orbitals are formed when s-orbitals and 2p-orbitals combine.

As a result, there is still a p-orbital that is unoccupied.

There are three hybridised orbitals (2s, 2px, 2py) needed by boron in BF3 in order to form the bond with fluorine.

Molecules feature sigma () and pi bonds, where the first bond atoms produce sigma bonds while the next two or three bonds are made using pi bonds. Molecular configurations

A single covalent bond is all that is needed to form this one-sigma bond, so there is no pi-bond.

BF3’s Molecular Geometry

Because of the many different types of electron orbitals and p-orbitals that can be formed when electrons are hybridised, molecules have distinct shapes that can be represented graphically.

As you discovered, the molecule BF3 has one boron atom and three fluorine atoms in sp2 hybridization (with three orbitals present).

S-orbital has a sphere. In the form of head-to-head loops, the 2px and 2py orbitals In the same plane, all of the loops (or orbitals) are separated by 120 degrees.

In a sp2 loop, each orbital is given one electron.

Inferring from the flat structure that BF3’s molecular geometry is trigonal planar (central atoms are surrounded by three-terminal atoms).

It forms an equilateral triangle with 120-degree angles on each side.

A 120-degree angle is formed by three-terminal atoms in the case of a zero-lone pair, even if chemical principles and the VSEPR model are used.

As a result, at a 120-degree angle, boron forms three single attachments with three fluorine atoms.

the trigonal planar


For compounds with lone pairs, VSEPR theory sets out a graph that lists down the molecular geometry features.

As opposed to the terminal atom, the central atom has the lowest electronegativity in the Lewis structure.

Valence electrons in the outermost shell can be determined using the atom’s atomic number.

The electronegativity difference between atoms is less than 0.5 due to the cancellation of the net dipole moment. Because the molecule is non-polar, it has no polarity.

For further clarification, see the BF3 article on polarity.

Read more: Hybridization and Lewis Structures for the BF3 Molecule

Misha Khatri
Misha Khatri is an emeritus professor in the University of Notre Dame's Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. He graduated from Northern Illinois University with a BSc in Chemistry and Mathematics and a PhD in Physical Analytical Chemistry from the University of Utah.


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