Is Cs2 a Polar or Nonpolar Substance

Carbon disulfide, sometimes known as CS2, is a chemical molecule with the formula CS2. It has the appearance of a colourless liquid and is very flammable. It has a nice ether-like odour about it. Many students may have doubts about whether or not CS2 is polar. In this post, I will respond to this question and discuss its qualities and applications.

Is CS2 polar or nonpolar, then? Because of its symmetric (linear) structure, CS2 (Carbon disulfide) is nonpolar. Despite the fact that carbon and sulphur have different electronegativity and the C-S bond is polar, the polarity of the two opposite C-S bonds cancels out, resulting in a nonpolar molecule.

At typical temperatures and pressures, carbon disulfide exists in a liquid state. It has an ether-like sweetness to it.

In the field of organic chemistry, this chemical is known as a building block. It is commonly utilised as a non-polar solvent in industry.

It’s a very flammable substance. It emits SO2 and CO2 gas emissions during combustion.

CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 2SO2 (sulphur dioxide) —-combustion—-> CS2 (carbon disulfide) + 3O2 (oxygen) (sulfur dioxide)

This molecule has a molecular mass of 76.13 gmol1. It is calculated as follows:

1 * 12 (Mol mass of C) + 2 * 32 (Mol mass of S) = 76.13 gmol1.

This compound has a chemical makeup of one carbon atom and two sulphur atoms.

The carbon atom is the central atom, surrounded on both sides by two sulphur atoms. The linear shape of a molecule is created by the sulphur atoms on both sides (left and right).

Because carbon has an electronegativity of 2.55 and sulphur has an electronegativity of 2.58, the C-S bonds become slightly polar.

The polarity of the slightly polar links in opposite directions cancels out and the overall polarity of the molecule is nullified.

The entire molecule’s dipole is found to be 0 D.

Polar and Nonpolar Molecules: What’s the Difference?

Polar molecules can be bound together by covalent bonds. Let’s have a look at covalent bonding.

Covalent bonds are chemical bonds in which atoms share electrons in order to stabilise each other.

These bonds can be single, double, or triple in nature, depending on the amount of electrons involved.

Non-Polar Molecules: Non-polar molecules are those in which the charges are evenly distributed throughout the molecule and no atom has an uneven charge.

Such molecules have a dipole moment of zero. If the electronegativity of two atoms is equivalent, the covalent bond formed between them is non-polar.

These molecules may have polar bonds, but the polarity of these bonds is cancelled by each other due to the symmetrical form, rendering the molecule nonpolar.

BF3, Cl2, and O3 are examples of these compounds. You can look into the reason behind C2H4’s non-polarity.

Nonpolar Molecules: Nonpolar molecules are those that have an uneven charge distribution across their atoms.

Such molecules always have a non-zero dipole moment. When the electronegativity of two diatomic molecules differs, the bond is said to be polar.

This is due to the fact that the higher electronegative atom pulls the bonded electronegative charge towards it, resulting in a partial negative charge.

HCl, HBr, and other nonpolar compounds are examples. You can look into the explanation for SCN’s polarity.

Why is CS2 classified as a nonpolar molecule?

As previously stated, carbon disulfide is a symmetric linear-shaped molecule that contains 1 carbon and 2 sulphur atoms on each sides.

Nonpolar compounds with symmetrical shapes are common. Similarly, the CS2 molecule is non-polar for the reasons listed below:

Because of a tiny variation in electronegativity between carbon and sulphur atoms, the C-S bond is somewhat polar.

Because both C-S bonds have dipoles pointing in opposite directions, they cancel each other out, resulting in a net dipole of zero.

As a result, symmetrically structured molecules are commonly reported to be nonpolar in nature.

The molecule lacks polar links and is hence nonpolar.

CS2 has a Lewis structure and a geometrical structure.

Because it shows the number of valence electrons of the molecule that participate in bond formation, the Lewis structure of a molecule is also known as the electron dot structure.

The lines in the Lewis structure reflect the bonds created in the molecule, while the dots represent the non-bonded electrons.

The octet rule is required for Lewis structure. To achieve stability, the atom should contain eight electrons in its outermost shell, according to the octet rule.

The carbon atom in the CS2 molecule has four valence electrons, while the sulphur atom has six. The CS2 molecule now has a total of 16 valence electrons.

Because carbon is the molecule’s least electronegative atom, it becomes the centre atom.

To complete their octet, both Sulfur atoms create a double bond with the carbon bond, leaving two lone pairs on both Sulfur atoms.

The molecule’s geometrical structure changes to linear, with sulphur atoms at both ends. The C-S bond has a length of roughly 155.26 pm.

The geometrical geometry of the CS2 molecule is depicted below.

Important considerations in determining a molecule’s polarity

When determining whether or not a molecule is polar. You should take note of the following characteristics that aid in determining its polarity.

Let’s have a look at what the elements listed below indicate.

Electronegativity: It’s important to keep track of the electronegativity of the atoms in a molecule. If you look at the electronegativity of its atoms, you’ll notice a difference. It denotes that their bond is polar.

The electronegativity of two atoms forming a covalent polar connection will always differ.

This is due to the fact that a more electronegative atom will attract the bound electron pair to its side, gaining negative charge, while the other atom will obtain a partial positive charge.

A molecule’s polarity is directly proportional to the difference in electronegativity between its atoms.

Dipole Moment: This phrase refers to the measurement of a molecule’s polarity. The dipole moment is exactly proportional to a molecule’s polarity.

It is the product of the charges on atoms and the distance between their positive and negative charge centres.

Its SI unit is Debye, and it is symbolised by D.

Geometrical Form: A molecule’s shape is a critical factor in determining whether it is polar or non-polar.

Because they have a charge imbalance, geometrically deformed molecules are usually polar.

The charge distribution in symmetrically shaped molecules is uniform, but the charge distribution in symmetrically shaped molecules is uneven.

CS2 Characteristics

It exists in the form of a colourless liquid.

It smells as delicious as ether in its purest form. However, pollutants are added to it commercially, resulting in an unpleasant odour.

It has a melting point of 111.61 degrees Celsius (168.90 degrees Fahrenheit) and a boiling temperature of 46.24 degrees Celsius (115.23 degrees Fahrenheit).

This is a sulfur-containing organosulfur chemical.

At a temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. It has a solubility of 2.17 g/L in water.

This chemical has a vapour pressure of 48.1 kPa at 25 degrees Celsius.

It is flammable, which means it will evaporate at room temperature.

CS2’s Applications

This chemical is commonly utilised in the production of perfumes and other aroma items.

It’s also used to make rayon and rubber in the textile industry.

This liquid can also be found in insecticides used in agricultural fields.

In organic chemistry, carbon disulfide is regarded as a building block.

It’s employed in a variety of solvent extraction techniques in lower amounts.

Conclusion

Carbon disulfide is a linear molecule made up of one carbon atom and two sulphur atoms on each sides of the carbon atom.

Although the electronegativity of Carbon(2.55) and Sulfur(2.58) differs slightly, making the C-S bond slightly polar, the molecule is nonpolar due to the symmetric form of the CS2 molecule.

Both C-S bonds have equal and opposite dipoles that cancel each other out, making the CS2 molecule non-polar.

Guys, feel free to ask any questions you may have in the comments section. I will contact you as soon as possible.

Read more: A homogenous or heterogeneous mixture of saltwater exists?

Misha Khatri
Misha Khatri is an emeritus professor in the University of Notre Dame's Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. He graduated from Northern Illinois University with a BSc in Chemistry and Mathematics and a PhD in Physical Analytical Chemistry from the University of Utah.

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