Ammonium ion is a polyatomic ion resulting from the protonation of ammonia (NH3). It is an onium ion with a positive charge represented by the chemical formula NH4+.
It is an inorganic ion that is typically produced by the metabolic systems of various animals. It is used to manufacture fertilisers, explosives, etc. The presence of excessive ammonium ions in soil may result in acidification.
This article will provide additional information about NH4+ and its various qualities.
So let’s begin…
Is NH4+ acidic?
NH4+ is an acid, yes. It has a pH of approximately 5.5 and can donate a proton in an aqueous solution. Since NH4+ ions do not entirely dissociate in an aqueous solution, NH4+ is considered a weak acid. NH4+ is the conjugate acid of Ammonia base (NH3). The chemical formula is as follows:
NH4+ + H2O —-> H2O + NH3 + H+
In an aqueous solution, the ammonium ion releases a proton and creates ammonia and water according to the above equation.
Is NH4+ an Alkali?
Substances that take a proton or contribute an electron are alkalis or bases. They have a pH greater than 7 and red litmus turns blue. Since none of these characteristics apply to ammonium ions, they cannot be termed a base.
In addition, unlike other alkalis, ammonium ions are incapable of producing OH– ions in aqueous solution or donating lone pairs of electrons to other atoms or molecules.
Consequently, NH4+ is not a base.
The pH of NH4+
The pH value of a substance indicates its acidity or basicity. A pH above 7 implies that a chemical is basic, a pH below 7 suggests that it is acidic, and a pH of 7 indicates that the substance is neutral.
For ammonium ion, the protonation reaction described previously can also be expressed as follows:
NH4+ + H2O —–> NH4OH + H+
The equation for the equilibrium constant can be stated as follows:
Ka = [NH4OH] [H+] / [NH4+]
Now, let’s attempt to determine the pH of 0.1 M ammonium ion solution.
The ammonium ion has a Ka value of 5.55 x 10-10.
Additionally, we are aware that the starting concentration of ammonium ions in the solution was 0.1%.
Assuming that x moles of NH4OH and H+ are produced, let’s plug these numbers into the preceding reaction. Therefore,
5.55 X 10-10 = [x] [x]/[0.1 – x]
As the value of Ka is very small, we can consider 0.1 – x 0.1 to be more than 0.1.
Consequently, x2 = 55.5 x 10-12
Calculate the value of x from the above reaction using this information.
We obtain x = 7.44 X 10-6
Thus, [H+] is 7.44 x 10-6
Now, pH equals -log[H+]
= -log 7.44 X 10-6
Since ammonium ion solution has a pH value below 7, it is acidic.
Moreover, because the pH is close to 7 and the value of Ka is less than 1, NH4+ is slightly acidic.
What makes NH4+ acidic?
Numerous ideas have been proposed to distinguish an acid from a base. However, the chemistry of acids and bases is founded on the three most important hypotheses. The following are:
According to the Bronsted-Lowry Theory, an acid is a chemical that rapidly transfers proton in aqueous solution. The strength of an acid is proportional to how easily its protons may be removed.
• Arrhenius Theory: This theory demonstrates that acids can generate hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions.
This hypothesis depicts acids as entities that readily accept a single pair of given electrons from any other molecule.
Let’s examine the ammonium ion in light of the aforementioned theories.
As discussed in the preceding sections, ammonium ions in an aqueous solution release protons. Thus, according to the Bronsted-Lowry theory, it is acidic.
In an aqueous solution, ammonium ion dissociates into hydrogen atoms and ammonia molecules. Consequently, it satisfies the Arrhenius theory’s acid conditions.
Lastly, based on the Lewis principle, the ammonium ion lacks a lone pair of electrons at its core atom and hence has the propensity to take protons from other molecules. Therefore, ammonium ion is appropriately categorised as a Lewis acid.
Is NH4+ a Weak or Strong Acid?
To comprehend this, we must first define what it means to refer to an acid as strong or weak.
Strong acids are those that ionise easily and thoroughly in water solutions. They have a propensity to readily donate protons.
Typically, they have a pH value far below 7, however this can vary depending on the acid concentration in a solution. Examples of strong acids include HCl, H2SO4, and HBr.
Conversely, weak acids are those that only partially dissociate in an aqueous solution. They also transfer proton, albeit less readily than strong acids. Examples of weak acids include HCN, CH3COOH, and H3PO4.
Examine Is H3PO4 an acid or a base?
Now, let us consider the ammonium ions.
In aqueous solution, ammonium ions do not separate entirely. This is also evident from the extraordinarily low acid dissociation constant value (Ka).
Another reason why NH4+ is a weak acid is because its conjugate base, NH3, is a weak base and hence rapidly interacts with water to reconstruct NH4+ ions.
Therefore, NH4+ ions stay unionised in the solution the majority of the time. Ammonium ions are hence weak acids.
Additionally, we must comprehend the concept of acid dissociation constant, which can be expressed as:
• For strong acids, Ka is more than 1
• Ka 1 for weak acids
As has been shown in earlier sections, the acid dissociation constant for NH4+ ions is always less than 1. This provides further evidence that ammonium ions behave as weak acids.
Which is more acidic, NH4+ or NH3?
As conjugate acid-base pairs, ammonium ions, i.e. NH4+, and ammonia, i.e. NH3, are connected to one another. In the aqueous solution, the ammonium ion gives up one of its protons to generate ammonia.
Since the conjugate base of an acid is generated when the acid contributes its proton, NH4+ serves as the Bronsted-Lowry acid while NH3 serves as its conjugate base.
The written response is:
NH4+ (aq) —–> NH3 + H2O
Consequently, NH4+ ions are significantly more acidic than NH3 molecules.
Which is more robust? NH4 vs. NH3
The fundamental guideline for determining a compound’s stability is that neutral molecules are always more stable than their ions.
In the present instance, we have ammonia, which is a neutral chemical, and ammonium ions, which possess one positive charge. Consequently, it is evident that NH3 will be more stable than NH4+ due to the existence of a charge on the latter.
Ammonium ions, which are acidic by nature, are generally stable under acidic environments, whereas ammonia molecules are often less stable.
As ammonia’s pH is closer to the basic end of the scale, it will be more stable in an alkaline environment.
Is NH4 an Absorbent?
In chemistry, a buffer is a solution that contains almost equal amounts of acid and base.
These are utilised to prevent a solution’s pH from changing due to the addition of a little amount of acid or base.
Typically, they are created through titration reactions. Each buffer solution has a useful pH range; if the pH of a solution is moved beyond this range, the buffer solution may no longer be effective at regulating the pH of the solution.
Ideal buffer solutions are composed of a weak acid and its conjugate base to efficiently stabilise the pH of a solution. In the case of ammonium ions, a solution with the ideal proportions of NH4+ and NH3 serves as an effective buffer.
Properties & Uses
• The ammonium ion molecular weight is 18,039 grammes.
• It is an inorganic substance found in the form of onium ions.
• The NH4+ ions have a tetrahedral geometry.
• This substance is a nitrogen hydride that acts as a monoprotic acid.
• It is the ammonia conjugate acid.
• Under normal conditions, NH4+ ions behave like amalgam, but under high pressure, they behave like metals.
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Ammonium ions are weak acids with a pH of approximately 5.5.
Ammonium ion acts as a Bronsted acid by contributing a proton, as an Arrhenius acid by donating a hydrogen ion, and as a Lewis acid by receiving a lone pair of electrons.
In an aqueous solution, the ammonium ion releases a proton to generate ammonia, whereas the ammonia molecule absorbs a proton to form the ammonium ion.
Ammonium ions are weak acids because they do not entirely dissociate in water. In addition, its Ka value is less than 1, which is indicative of weak acids.
Ammonium ions are more stable in acidic environments, whereas their conjugate base ammonia is more stable in alkaline environments.
The optimal concentration of ammonia and ammonium ions in a solution serves as a buffer, which can be utilised to adjust the pH of a solution.