Lewis Structure, Molecular Geometry, Hybridization, and the MO Diagram of the N2H2 molecule

N2H2 is the chemical formula for dinitrogen dihydride. The most popular names for this chemical are diazene and diimide. It has both cis and trans isomers and is a yellowish-colored gas. Decarboxylation of azodicarboxylic acid ((NCOOH)2) can be used to make it.

In addition, the introduction of air or H2O2 causes hydrazine (N2H4, a colourless flammable liquid) to be oxidised, resulting in the creation of N2H2.

The chemical equation for making Dinitrogen Dihydride/Diazene/Diimide is shown below.

(NCOOH)2      ——>      (NH)2      +    2 CO2

It has a molar mass of 30.03 g/mol and melts at 193K. Its density is around 1.2 g/cc. Azo and diazo groups are diazene substituents.

N2H2 has a wide range of applications in organic synthesis. It aids in the hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes, for example. Aside from that, it helps with the selective reduction of branched acyclic hydrocarbons.

Chemical Adhesion

Chemical bonding is the process of atomic components coming together to create molecule compositions due to attraction and forming specific sorts of bonds.

This is one of the most interesting chemical phenomena since it explains the physics of atomic attraction as well as the causes of a variety of chemical reactions.

Not only that, but the nature of chemical bonding can aid chemistry students in deciphering the chemical and physical properties of diverse molecules and ions.

The electrons in the valence shell are frequently involved in bond formation and play a significant role in bonding. We’ll go over the various approaches and theories for determining the bonding type in N2H2 in further detail in the next sections.

Structure of Lewis

A Quick Overview

A fundamental chapter of chemistry is the nature of chemical bonding inside a molecular structure. Drawing the Lewis Structure of any given molecule is one of the first tactics for understanding chemical bonding.

Lewis Structure is a two-dimensional diagrammatic representation of a molecule or ionic structure that aids in the identification of bond types and provides a concise summary of electrical arrangement.

Let’s look at the Lewis Structure of N2H2 (dinitrogen dihydride).

N2H2 Lewis Structure

Understanding the idea of valency and calculating valence electrons is the first step in sketching the Lewis Structure of any molecule.

The combining ability of an atom for bond formation is known as valency. The number of electrons in the outermost shell, also known as the valence shell, is commonly used to signify this.

The number of valence electrons in elements belonging to the same periodic table group will be the same.

In the case of N2H2, a single molecule has two nitrogen atoms and two hydrogen atoms.

Let’s have a look at the periodic table together.

Nitrogen contains 5 valence electrons and belongs to group 15.

Hydrogen is a group 1 element with one valence electron.

N2H2 has a total valence electron count of 5*2 + 12 = 12.

We must now determine the molecule’s core atom.

The hydrogen atom, however, is an exception to this rule, as it loves to be outside.

So, here’s what our rough sketch looks like:

We employ electron dot notations in Lewis Structure, which means we use dot symbols to represent the constituent atoms’ valence shell electrons.

Here’s where the octet rule or octet fulfilment comes in.

The octet rule: Did you know that during bond formation, the major group elements in the periodic table have a tendency to contain eight valence electrons? The octet arrangement of noble gas components like Neon, Argon, and others causes this propensity.

Hydrogen, on the other hand, tends to fill two electrons in its outer shell due to its Helium structure.

Both hydrogen atoms in the dinitrogen dihydride molecule have achieved the He conformation, as seen above. The difference between the two N atoms is that one has eight electrons and the other only has six.

To complete the octet of the other N atom, the Lewis Structure will be adjusted as follows:

We now have the most appropriate Lewis Structure for N2H2.

Geometry of Molecular Structure

Despite being one of the most popular and straightforward approaches to discussing chemical bonding, Lewis Structure has a number of flaws.

VSEPR theory, short for Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory, is a tool that may be used to calculate the molecular geometry of any structure.

What exactly is the VSEPR theory?

Electrons are negatively charged particles that exist on the shells or orbitals that surround atomic nuclei, as we are all know. Because they are like-charged particles, their negative charges make them repellent.

In order to preserve stability and equilibrium inside a molecule, the repulsion caused by the electron cloud surrounding the atomic nuclei must be minimised, according to VSEPR theory.

The VSEPR model predicts a chemical compound’s 3D molecular geometry or structure.

So, how does a N2H2 molecule look in three dimensions?

Molecular Geometry of N2H2

Two identical nitrogen atoms are surrounded by two hydrogen atoms in the N2H2 molecule.

As a result, choose any nitrogen atom from the two that are accessible and consider it to be the centre atom. This will make it much easier to interpret the 3D molecule shape.

The AXE notation is now suggested by Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory.

In the notation AXnEx,

A indicates for the centre atom, which in this case is nitrogen.

X denotes the number of surrounding atoms; in this case, the core N atom is surrounded by one hydrogen and one N-H group, therefore ‘n’ denotes two.

E denotes the number of lone pairs attached to the centre atom; in this case, there is only one non-bonded pair on the central N, therefore ‘x’ denotes one.

As a result, the AX2E1 symbol is applied to the N2H2 molecule.

Now we’ll look at the VSEPR chart to determine diazene’s correct molecular geometry.

We can see that the molecular geometry is bent in AX2E1 notation, and the bond angle is roughly 120 degrees.

The electron geometry will be trigonal planar in nature.


What is the definition of hybridization?

In chemistry, hybridization, sometimes known as orbital hybridization, is a key chemical bonding idea established by Linus Pauling. We already know that orbitals are mathematical probabilities that give us a sense of how many electrons are present in space.

The wave functions of these atomic orbitals (AOs) like s, p, d, f, and others join and fuse to generate numerous types of hybridised orbitals like sp, sp2, sp3, and so on.

Orbital hybridization is the process of atoms’ orbital energy being redistributed towards hybrid orbitals.

Diazene’s hybridization type ( N2H2 )

We’ll talk about the sort of hybridization in our provided molecule, N2H2, now that we’ve talked about what hybridization is and how vital it is for understanding chemical bonding.

The formula for calculating the Steric Number is:

Number of atoms bound to the core atom inside a molecule + Number of lone pairs of electrons attached to the central atom = Steric number

The nitrogen atom serves as the core atom in a diazene molecule.

Any N atom has two atoms connected to it in the Lewis Structure: a N and a H atom via double and single bonds, respectively.

One sigma pair exists in a single bond, while one sigma and one pi bond exist in a double bond. The pi bond is not involved in the hybridization process.

One lone pair, or two lone electrons, are connected to a N atom.

As a result, steric number equals 3.

V = 5, M = 1, C = 0, A = 0 in this case.

H = three.

The centre Nitrogen atom has a sp2 hybridization.

Diagram of the Molecular Orbital (MO)

The notion that atomic orbitals (AOs) from the same individual atom can come together to create fusion into hybridised orbitals that overlap with hybridised orbitals formed by the combination of AOs from other individual atoms inside the molecule is considered in VBT, also known as Valence Bond Theory.

We also come across the Molecular Orbital Theory, or MOT, in quantum mechanics. To generate molecular orbitals, valence or outermost shell electrons are shared among constituent atoms within a specific molecule ( MOs ).

This is a well-known and complicated chemical bonding principle.

HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital), LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital), anti-bonding, no-bonding, and bonding orbitals are all discussed here.

Linear combination and United atom techniques are also available.

The MO of N2H2 is depicted in the diagram below.

MO Diagram for N2H2


The chemical bonding within a diazene molecule was described in this article. The Lewis Structure, molecular geometry, hybridization, and MO diagram for the N2H2 molecule have all been thoroughly explained.

Good luck with your studies!

Read more: Is Distilled Water Electrically Conductive?

Misha Khatri
Misha Khatri is an emeritus professor in the University of Notre Dame's Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. He graduated from Northern Illinois University with a BSc in Chemistry and Mathematics and a PhD in Physical Analytical Chemistry from the University of Utah.


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