MO Diagram, Molecular Geometry, Hybridization, and CCl4 Lewis Structure

Carbon tetrachloride is a synthetic compound that is not found in nature. It is a colourless liquid compound with a faintly sweet ether-like odour in its native state.

Initially, the substance had commonplace applications, but it is now prohibited due to its danger to humans.

In nature, the compound is transparent and very stable.

Carbon chloride, methane tetrachloride, benziform, and more names for CCl4 exist.

The liquid is non-combustible and insoluble in water.

CCl4 has a melting point of -23.0 degrees Celsius and a boiling point of 76.8 degrees Celsius. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide will be released by CCl4. if it results in breakdown

Any human who inhales (short-term) or is orally exposed to CCl4 compound may experience headache, tiredness, weakness, and nausea.

If the substance is taken or exposed to humans in significant or continuous amounts, kidney or liver damage can occur.

Carbon tetrachloride has a number of basic features.

Now, starting with its Lewis structure, let’s look at its structure and other characteristics.

Drawing a Lewis Structure

Any compounds should be drawn The importance of Lewis Structure is due to one key reason: “you gain a better understanding of the properties of the molecule.”

Lewis structures are also referred to as electron dot diagrams or Lewis dot diagrams. Because of the bond representation that occurs within the chemical, this nomenclature exists.

In the Lewis structure, lone electrons are shown as dots, whereas bonds are depicted as a single line.

Bonding pairs of electrons are all the electrons that participate in the formation of bonds.

Non-bonding pairs of electrons are electrons that do not participate in the formation of bonds.

Valence electrons refer to the bonds and lone pairs that make up a molecule.

The octet rule must be fulfilled for any compound to remain stable. According to this theory, an atom’s outer shell should have 8 electrons.

Let’s move on to the following section, where we’ll learn about the Lewis structure of CCl4.

Lewis Structure of CCl4

Now that you understand how the Lewis structure works and why it’s important, you can move on to the next step. Let us not waste time trying to figure out what CCl4 is made of.

There is a core atom in every compound; in the instance of CCl4, the central atom is Carbon, to which Chlorine atoms are bound or linked.

C and Cl share all of their electrons, forming a connection. A lone pair is formed by the remaining electrons.

Calculate the Valence electrons of CCl4 to better comprehend this.

To calculate the number of Valence electrons, we’ll need to combine all the bonded and lone electrons together.


C (Carbon) has four electrons in its valence shell.

Cl (Chlorine) has seven electrons in its valence shell.

Chlorine is represented by four atoms.

As a result, the total number of Valence Electrons equals.

Valence Electrons = 7*4 = 28

As a result, the total number of C and Cl electrons equals.

Valence Electrons = 4+28 = 32

All four Carbon electrons are involved in the creation of a connection with one electron from each of the four Chlorine atoms.

In order to create a bond, 4 electrons of Carbon and 4 electrons of Chlorine are used, totaling 8 electrons.

The number of electrons left is now:

24 Valence Electrons = 32-8

In the CCl4 molecule, these 24 non-bonding electrons create 12 lone pairs.

This leads us to the conclusion that each Chlorine atom has six valence electrons after bonds are established.

To see a visual picture of everything we just learnt, look at the diagram below.

Moving on to the following section, we’ll study about CCl4 hybridization.

Hybridization using CCl4

When learning about compound bonding, the phrase “hybridization” comes up frequently.

If you don’t understand the underlying notion and idea of hybridization, you won’t be able to fully comprehend a chemical.

In simple terms, hybridization refers to the distribution of electrons in different energy orbitals to gain a better understanding of the chemical and its features.

Depending on the compound and the environment, the properties of the compound might be changed minutely or dramatically during hybridization.

The Steric number can be used to determine which state of hybridization the molecule is in.

The steric number is computed by multiplying the number of atoms directly bound to the core atom by the number of lone pairs of electrons on the central atom.

The amount of lone pairs on Carbon is zero, as can be shown by looking at the structure.

And there are four atoms bound to each carbon atom.

As a result, the Steric Number equals =0+4 =4.

The following is how these electrons can be distributed in different orbitals:

1 Valence electron pair Equals S orbital.

1 Valence electron pair Equals Px orbital.

1 Valence electron pair = 1 Py orbital

1 Valence electron pair in the Pz orbital.

As a result, we can conclude that CCl4 hybridization is sp3.

Take a look at the diagram below for a more detailed explanation of the same subject.

Molecular Geometry of CCl4

We can simply understand the molecular geometry of any chemical once we know its hybridization.

Here’s how to figure out what the geometry of CCl4 is.

Carbon is the compound’s core atom.

4 Chlorine atoms are linked to a carbon atom.

The Carbon atom is in the centre, while the other Chlorine atoms are arranged around it.

The Tetrahedral geometry of CCl4 is due to four bound pairs.

All of the lone pairs of electrons in the compound are inherently repulsive. These electrons extend out in the plane, forming a bond angle between the two atoms.

The bond angle between two Chlorine atoms is 109 degrees 28′, as seen in the diagram above. The compound takes shape as a result of this repulsion and the formation of a bond angle.

The CCl4 compound takes on a tetrahedral form in this scenario.

It’s all about the CCl4 Hybridization.

Let us now turn our attention to another essential feature of the compound: its polarity.

CCl4’s polarity

Any compound’s polarity is determined by its molecular geometry.

Let’s look at the polarity of CCl4 now that we’ve examined its molecular geometry.

When the bonding and non-bonding pairs are organised on a plane, they have a dipole moment.

There is no dipole moment in CCl4 because the electrons are distributed in a symmetric pattern. There is no charge polarisation over the entire molecule.

The polarity is 0 when there is no dipole moment. The polarity of CCl4 can be consulted for more detailed information.

CCl4 molecular orbital diagram

A MO diagram is just a representation of the bonds made between atoms to form a molecule.

The molecular orbital theory is used to create this diagram.

The presence of certain chemicals can be explained using a MO diagram. The molecular orbital diagrams of CCl4 and CH4 are depicted in this diagram.

We hope you now have a better understanding of CCL4’s MO diagram and how the bonds are organised inside the complex.

CCl4 is used in a number of ways.

Here are some of the CCl4 applications that you should be aware of:

Refrigeration fluid is made with this substance.

Used in aerosol can propellants.

As a pesticide, CCl4 is utilised.

It can also be used as a cleanser.

Oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and other materials are dissolved in it.

Putting it all together in a nutshell

Let’s quickly review everything we’ve learned so far about the chemical CCl4. Because of its symmetric alignment, the molecule CCl4 is non-polar.

In nature, CCl4 is a white liquid with a faintly sweetish odour.

If humans are exposed to excessive amounts of the substance, it can be poisonous to their skin and cause serious injury.

In CCl4, there are 32 valence electrons. Four of the 32 valence electrons participate in bond formation, while the other 28 are non-bonding. CCl4 has an sp3 hybridization.

This enables us to comprehend the tetrahedral geometry of CCl4. The angle of the atoms’ bonds is approximately 109 degrees.

This article covers the Lewis structure, hybridization, molecular geometry, polarity, applications, and MO diagram of the molecule CCl4.

We hope that this essay was informative and that you gained a basic understanding of this intriguing substance.

Please do not hesitate to contact our team if you have any questions about the content.

Thank you for taking the time to read this.

Read more: Is Cl2 a polar or nonpolar substance?

Misha Khatri
Misha Khatri is an emeritus professor in the University of Notre Dame's Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. He graduated from Northern Illinois University with a BSc in Chemistry and Mathematics and a PhD in Physical Analytical Chemistry from the University of Utah.


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