Steps To Draw The Silicon Bohr Model

Silicon is a member of Group 14 and is represented by the symbol Si. Because of its great affinity for oxygen, it is rarely seen in nature in its pure form.

It’s a metalloid and a non-metal at the same time. It is the second most abundant mineral on the surface of the world. Around 90% of the earth’s crust is made up of silicate minerals. Clays, stone, and silica sand are all examples of silicon.

Are you curious about the Bohr model of silicon? If you answered yes, this article will teach you about the Bohr model of silicon.

Silicon Bohr Model

Because it was designed as a modification of the Rutherford model, the Bohr model is often known as the Bohr-Rutherford model. Niel Bohr presented it in 1913.

This model is used to depict the atomic structure in a visual format. The projected positions of several atomic particles such as electrons, protons, and neutrons are shown.

To properly understand the atomic structure, we must first appreciate the various sections and particles that make up an atom. The following are some of them:

• Nucleus: The nucleus is the beating heart of an atom, positioned directly in the middle. Positively charged protons and neutral neutrons make up the nucleus.

• Proton: Ernst Rutherford coined this term to describe the positively charged species found inside the nucleus. The symbol p+ is used to represent these.

• Neutrons: Inside the nucleus, there are neutral subatomic particles called neutrons. The symbol n or n° is used to represent these.

• Electrons: Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles that surround the atom’s nucleus. The electrons in the Bohr-Rutherford model orbit the nucleus in defined orbits or shells.

• Shells: These are the circular channels that surround atoms and are supposed to allow electrons to revolve around the nucleus. The number of electrons in an atom determines the number of shells present.

The shells of the atom are called K, L, M, N, etc., or 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., according to the Bohr model, with the lowest value attributed to the shell nearest to the nucleus.

Energy levels are another name for the shells. The shell closest to the nucleus is believed to contain the least energy, also known as the ground state, while the one furthest away has the most.

When an electron becomes excited, it moves from a lower to a higher energy level.

The valence shell is an atom’s furthest shell or outermost energy level, and the electrons that reside in it are known as valence electrons.

The silicon atom comprises 14 protons and 14 neutrons, as well as 14 electrons that orbit its nucleus in three shells: K, L, and M.

Silicon AtomValue
No. of Proton14
No. of Neutron14
Number of Electrons14
Number of shells3
Number of electrons in first (K) shell2
Number of electrons in second (L) shell8
Number of electrons in third (M) shell4
Number of valence electrons4

Drawing the Silicon Bohr Model

Silicon is a member of the carbon family and is found in the Periodic Table’s 14th group.

The Silicon box seen above displays its numerous features. The following are some of the facts that can be deduced from it:

• Silicon has an atomic number of 14.

• Silicon’s electrical arrangement is 1s22s22p63s23p2.

• Silicon is denoted by the letter Si.

Silicon has an atomic mass of 28.086.

To draw the Bohr model of silicon we shall first identify the number of atomic species present in this atom.

Let’s start by determining the number of protons in the Silicon atom.

An atom’s atomic number is always the same as the number of protons it contains.

The atomic number of silicon is 14 in this example.

As a result, the number of protons in silicon equals the atomic number of silicon, which is 14.

Now we need to figure out how many neutrons there are in the Silicon atom.

Atomic mass (rounded up to the closest whole number) – number of neutrons

The total number of protons

Silicon has an atomic number of 28.086, which when rounded up to the nearest whole integer gives us the number 28.

As a result, the number of neutrons in silicon is equal to 28 – 14 = 14.

Because the nucleus of an atom contains neutrons and protons, the nucleus of Silicon can now be drawn as follows:

The proton is represented by p+, and the neutron is represented by n°.

Let us now attempt to determine the number of electrons in the Silicon atom.

Because the quantity of electrons equals the atomic number,

As a result, the number of electrons in the Silicon atom = Atomic Number = 14.

This means the nucleus of the Silicon atom has 14 electrons circulating around it. Let us now determine the location of these electrons within the atom.

The formula for calculating the number of electrons that can be accommodated in a shell is:

N = 2n2 = maximum number of electrons in a shell

Where n is the number of shells.

The number of electrons that can be accommodated in the first (K) shell is now calculated as follows:

The greatest number of electrons in the K shell is 2 X (1)2 = 2.

As a result, the K shell has two electrons, and the silicon atom appears like this after adding two electrons to its K shell:

To find the maximum number of electrons that can be added to the L shell, do the following:

The greatest number of electrons in the L shell is 2 X (2)2 = 8.

As a result, the L shell may hold eight electrons.

Please keep in mind that electrons are always added clockwise to any shell (save the K shell). This is accomplished by adding the first four electrons at a 90° angle to each other, and then adding the remaining electrons in a group of four in the same manner.

Applying this to the silicon atom, the silicon atom appears like this after adding the first four electrons to the L shell:

When the remaining four electrons in the L shell are added, the silicon atom looks like this:

Calculate the maximum number of electrons that M shell can hold now.

Maximum number of electrons in M shell = 2 X (3)2 = 18

In the case of silicon, however, we are now down to just four electrons. In a clockwise direction, these four electrons are added to the M shell. The following is the final Bohr model of the Silicon atom:

As a result, 14 protons, 14 neutrons, and 14 electrons make up the final Bohr model of the Silicon atom.

The electrons are divided into three shells: the K shell contains two electrons, the L shell contains eight electrons, and the M shell contains four electrons. In the silicon atom, there are four valence electrons.

The Lewis Structure is derived from the Bohr Model.

The Lewis structure depicts the valence electron locations around an atom’s nucleus.

It is also known as the electron dot structure because the electrons are depicted as dots and the nucleus is depicted using the atomic symbol of the atom.

It may be deduced from the Bohr model of the atom shown above that its valence shell contains four electrons. As a result, the Lewis structure of the Silicon atom can be drawn as follows:

I’ve written several papers about silicon compounds’ Lewis structures. Here are a few examples.

FAQ

Question 1: How many shells does a silicon atom have?

Answer: The silicon atom is made up of three shells: K, L, and M. These are also known as the atom’s first, second, and third shells.

Calculate the amount of valence electrons in the silicon atom in question 2.

The electrons that participate in bonding when an atom produces a compound are known as valence electrons. These are kept in the atom’s shell that is furthest away from the nucleus.

The M shell is the furthest from the nucleus in the silicon atom, hence the electrons in this shell are silicon’s valence electrons. As a result, silicon has four valence electrons.

Silicon’s Characteristics

• Silicon is a metalloid element with an electropositive charge.

• It produces tetravalent compounds most of the time.

• Silicon has melting and boiling temperatures of 1410 and 3265 degrees Celsius, respectively.

• It’s used in pottery, cement, and glass, among other things.

• Silicon is an intrinsic semiconductor in its finest form.

Conclusion

The silicon atom has 14 electrons, 14 protons, and 14 neutrons, according to the Bohr model.

An atom’s atomic number also refers to the number of electrons and protons it contains.

The nucleus contains neutral neutrons and positively charged protons, whereas the negatively charged shells are spread in various shells around the nucleus.

Each electron is allotted a certain path around the nucleus, which is called a shell. The formula 2n2 calculates the maximum number of electrons that can be held in a shell.

The silicon atom is made up of three shells: K, L, and M. The K shell contains two electrons, the L shell has eight electrons, and the M shell contains four electrons.

The electrons in the M shell are also known as valence electrons since they are the furthest away from the nucleus. Silicon has four valence electrons as a result.

Good luck with your reading!!

Read more: MO Diagram, Molecular Geometry, Hybridization, and SF6 Lewis Structure

Misha Khatri
Misha Khatri is an emeritus professor in the University of Notre Dame's Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. He graduated from Northern Illinois University with a BSc in Chemistry and Mathematics and a PhD in Physical Analytical Chemistry from the University of Utah.

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