Even as a puppy, a female dog is referred to as a bitch. This phrase separates male dogs from female dogs; the latter are referred to as dogs, studs, or sires. A female dog is referred to as a dam when she is carrying a litter of puppies.
A bitch is known to as a dam throughout the gestation stage, which in dams lasts for roughly 63 days. The name “bitch” is used once more after the dam whelps, or gives birth to a litter of puppies.
After they have fathered a litter of puppies, male dogs are referred to as studs or sires.