**The Roman numeral “IV” represents the number four. **

In the Roman numbering system, “I” corresponds to the number one in the Hindu-Arabic numbering system, and “V” corresponds to the number five. This numbering system is still utilised in some applications around the globe.

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## How do Roman Numerals work?

Roman numerals were part of the ancient Romans’ numbering system. They used letters to represent numbers, as opposed to the numbers commonly used today. This was the standard number notation in Europe during the Middle Ages, and it was used for nearly two millennia before the Hindu-Arabic system was adopted.

This numerical notation substitutes the Hindu-Arabic numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 with the symbols I, V, X, L, C, D, and M. If a bar is placed over these symbols, they represent larger numbers. A bar over the letter X, for instance, represents the number 10,000. This system lacks a zero symbol, as this was a contribution from Arabic mathematicians.

## Standard versus Alternative Roman Numeral Forms

Each number in the standard form of Roman numerals has a fixed value. Following the traditional rules, the letter combinations must be added and subtracted. In an alternative form of Roman numerals, symbols are combined. IX represents the number nine in standard Roman numeral format.

In addition to the standard form of Roman numerals, alternative forms existed that did not adhere to all of the standard rules. For example, the number 9 is frequently written as XIIII instead of IX. Another variant form does not contain the letters V and L. In this instance, the number 5 is represented as IIIII.

## Modern Applications of Roman Numerals

People stopped using Roman numerals in daily life in the fourteenth century, when the more efficient Hindu-Arabic numbering system became more prevalent. Roman numerals are still commonly used in other contexts, such as royal titles, watches and clocks, buildings, and entertainment. Roman numerals are used by publishers to separate chapters in books and by musicians to indicate major and minor triads.

## Calculating Sums and Differences Using Roman Numerals

When adding and subtracting Roman numerals, it is crucial to take note of the letter positions. When a letter follows a larger or equal symbol, the numbers are added. In the combination VI, for instance, the value of I is less than the value of V. The result of adding one to five is six. The converse holds true for subtraction. IX is equal to nine. Since the value of I is less than that of X, one is subtracted from ten, yielding nine.

## How to Use a Conversion Tool for Roman Numerals

It can be laborious to sort through the numbers in order to add and subtract them. People may then rely on a Roman numeral conversion tool to perform the necessary calculations. The user enters a series of Roman numerals and the tool converts them into more recognisable Hindu-Arabic numerals.